International Journal of Cyber Criminology

 Vol 3 Issue 2

Copyright © 2009 International Journal of Cyber Criminology (IJCC) ISSN: 0974 – 2891 July-December 2009, Vol 3 (2): 536–549

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, share alike, for non-commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. This license does not permit commercial exploitation or the creation of derivative works without specific permission.

 

GSM - SWOT, Security and Millennium Development in Africa: A

 

Survey on the impact of ICT in Ondo State, Nigeria

 

Adetula, G. A.,[1] Adetula, G. A.,[2] and Fagbohunka, A.[3]

Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This survey was conducted in Ondo state Nigeria among 250 males and females phone users to examine the rightful ownership and usage of the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) with the aim of knowing their experiences and perceived satisfaction from the exchange of the products to the consumption of services rendered. This study considered the common use to which mobile sets were put to and hence examined, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) accruing from them. Questionnaire and interview approaches were used to solicit information on issues like, GSM security and its implications for the Social Well being, Welfare, Life Style and Life Events. Results showed that positive relationships exist between the SWOT criteria indicating satisfaction of usage among Ondo state’s indigenes; life styles and life events as well as meeting social wellbeing and welfare objectives indicative of Millennium Development Goals. Results from the interview indicate that, the elitists seem to derive pride in the benefits of the ownership and usage. Majority use the GSM as communication working tool for policing and detection, economic, business, political, social and educational transactions. Many use them to swindle, impassionate, threaten, abduct and lie. Some use them to win laurels, and friendship. Some purchased theirs while others snatched, seized, stole or dispossessed people of its rightful ownership. These were taken as the extent to which GSM phone ownership and use have contributed to the MDGs in Nigeria. Recommendations were made for security improvement and cost effectiveness in services and for the government to put in place policy to make GSM available to the poor. 

 

Keywords: GSM Millennium Development, Life Events, Life Styles, Social Wellbeing and Welfare in Ondo State Nigeria.

 

Introduction

Recently information communication technology (ICT) was listed in as a criterion to development worldwide and for Nigerians it is the opportunity to use the Internet and perhaps the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM). At the start of the millennium, every nation wants to develop more. Every professional indicates the willingness for his/her profession to forge ahead of others. People want to move from subjective to objective, non physical or intangible to tangible, materialistic, observable and measurable material things. Human beings want to put value and worth on everything they do as a measure of development. Scientists, technologists, social or behavioural scientists want to account for what they profess each of their disciplines is doing in terms of the manifestations towards development and growth. Every where people want to show their own different criteria as measures of development for their people and nations as they have different measures developmental goals to account for as measures of it. Nigerians were not left out of this race. This goal of development is to satisfy the needs or requirements of people through public endeavors, such as education, good communication and transportation, good road networks, adequate infrastructure and public utilities, equal rights for both sexes, adequate nutrition, security and shelter, and improved national income and good standard of living, good recreational facilities, utilities such as uninterrupted water and electricity supplies among others.

Infact so many things were regarded as criteria for strategic planning and policy making towards the development of Nigerians. Among these are the creations of states to make the rural areas to develop for Nigerians who live there. More so for educated but poor indigenes of Ondo whose area of abode lies between latitudes 5 45’ and 7 52’ N and longitudes 4 20’ and 6 05’ E. Ondo state of Nigeria was one of the seven states created on 3rd February 1976 from former Western State of Nigeria which formally took off on April 1st 1976. On1st October, 1996, Ekiti state, comprising Ekiti central, Ekiti north, Ekiti south, and Ekiti west divisions, were carved out of Ondo State indicating another positive step towards development. The present Ondo state is now made up of Akoko, Akure, Okitipupa, Ondo and Owo divisions with Akure as the State capital, eighteen local government areas, three senatorial zones and ten ethnic groupings. Ondo state land area is about 15,500 square kilometres. Ondo is bounded on the East by Edo and Delta States, on the West by Ogun and Osun States, on the north by Ekiti and Kogi States and to the South by the Bight of Benin and Atlantic Ocean. These pictures have unending commercial, economic, social and educational values particularly for the psychology of Information Communication Technology (ICT) usage implications for instance, cyber fraud and fraudulent practices such as, theft, terrorism, hacking, swindling and so forth. However, it is general belief that the positive added value of ICT is more than the negative aspect particularly on timely information delivery which is cost and life saving.

Information provided by the 2006 Census in Nigeria indicates that Ondo state has a total population of three million, four hundred and forty one thousand and twenty males and females. The structure and distribution of population in Ondo State have been affected by high incidence of migration of Ondo indigenes to other parts of the country. The main occupation of the people of Ondo state is agriculture, providing income and employment opportunities for over seventy percent of the population. It also contributes well over seventy-five percent to the state’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Ondo State is one of the most important timber producing states in Nigeria. Ondo State has also become a member of the Nigerian oil producing states as petroleum is now extracted off shore (Ministry of Information and Culture 1989). Other minerals available include tar sand (bitumen), Kaolin clay, Granite, Quartz sand, Coal, Columbite, Tin and Marble, many of which are at different stages of prospecting, extracting and development. Ondo State has a coast with a great potential for fishing. Industrialisation is rapidly taking place in the state. At present, the major industrial ventures include the Okitipupa oil Palm Mill Plc at Okitipupa. Cocoa products Company Limited at Ile Oluji and so on (www.ondostate.gov.ng). With this, Ondo State have needs for a lot of fast Communication and timely Information Technology for Contacts especially the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) as transportation is inefficient and ineffective here. The possession of this will be deemed a development criterion in this millennium.

Technologists in the field of information communication technology (ICT) and global system for mobile communications (GSM) want to satisfy own organisation and customers on information needs and communication for development. The idea is to provide undisrupted information transfer to people all over the world. Clearly this cost saving and making profits for government and people and without taking unnecessary risks without results. The psychologist on other hand wants to measure attitudes of people towards the possession and use of GSM facilities (phones). In order to know the benefits accruing to both the user and the supplier in terms of satisfaction or dissatisfaction derived for introducing GSM phones. Psychologists’ efforts on phones strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats borders on societal well being and welfare in relation to satisfying everyday life style, life events and living. Theirs is on challenges of the need, the use to understand how far, the developmental goal for the GSM phones has advanced within the millennium?

The answers expected must relate to the above criteria and the consequences of the source and resource of transactions.  These will enable us to address the issue of the strength, weakness, opportunity and threats of the GSM mobile phone in terms of satisfying the security needs of the manufacturers, salesmen and users and potential users. Radio reports and available newspaper headlines for instance, Punch 12th June 2003 insist that the problems of crimes and criminals have assumed global dimensions in today’s climate. Agbola (1997) claimed that violence and crime have caused great personal suffering, vast material damage, and placed enormous burden on the urban social network. Therefore, security mission services are highly required and recommended for urban social growth. GSM phone and security of use in Nigeria without protection from the manufacturers and or governments’ and private security agents and agencies contributions seem dangerous as it will be protection claimed without the safeguarding weapons. Surely one would feel threatened seeing, hearing, knowing and appreciating that somebody’s behaviour will lead to his or her instant insecurity. A lot of embarrassments could occur if criminality is not curtailed or if the innocent or law abiding citizen is not provided with safety measures to protect life and property. Particularly when violence is looming and one person or a group of persons are the perpetrators of the evil where a person or many people are endangered.

What we are saying is that for the millennium development of the nation and its citizens to grow, there is the need for security to be tightened and strengthened and re-tightened and re-strengthened all over again and again particularly  in the safe handling of GSM phones.  This is because in the world today, there is risk in the possession of GSM phones and there is no efficient and effective monitoring and management of their security in use and ownership hence there are loopholes. What guarantee’s one’s life mostly is God’s Grace and the knowledge and wisdom he gave to us for knowing how to defend ourselves when insecurity to lives is imminent. But as one of the millennium development goals agenda in Africa and Nigeria in particular, some efforts have been made by governments and individuals to provide security for selves and properties specifically for GSM phones ownership and use. These are not enough because criminals are evading and thwarting them every day because they are one step above the law. Nigerians indigenous  knowledge and technology and martial artistry cannot control or guarantee and guide the individual citizen against surreptitious dangerous towards Nigerian lives, and properties without one running him/her self amok or fowl the law of the land and humanity if one takes unethical defence or jungle justice in dealing with all insecurity moves. The people of a state create the constitution and the constitution creates the government and in turn three arms of government were provided for by the constitution. 

In Nigeria, the government has three arms of government that administer, execute and make the rules. These are; Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. The executive governs, legislature makes laws and the judiciary interprets the laws. This makes Nigeria a democratic government and operates on common law. Nigeria as a democracy runs three tiers of governments: the Federal, the State and the Local Governments.  All the three tiers are different entities but bounded together by constitution to uphold the rules, that is, have autonomy to administer the rules and regulations in decentralised states administration that protect lives and properties of the citizenry. In this case every state created has, senatorial districts, local government areas, and towns to adequately represent themselves as the case may be in each of the three tiers of governments particularly in the executive council, senate, house of representative, state houses of assemblies and local government councils. The Federal, state and local governments duties to citizens include, protection of the human rights, lives and properties as well as providing certain public infrastructures, such as, information telecommunication (ICT), Transportation and communication and road networks, provision of food, shelter and water, public utilities, jobs and employment creation, social services, education, health, subsidies, recreational facilities and increasingly modifying and maintaining these rights (Abodunrin, 1981; Adetula, 2005; Agbola, 1997; Aguda, 1991; Andy, 1995).

Babangida the first military president in 1984 constructed the Lagos third mainland bridge and successfully moved the seat of government to a new city Abuja which he made sure its construction was accelerated. In the same way, Obasonjo in his second coming as civilian president in 2002 reorganised Nigerian telecommunication system by allowing global system for mobile communication to thrive in Nigeria. And since these developments Nigeria have been moving from one stage of development to another individually, collectively and nationally. All these trends in civilisation have its positive and negative implications such as creating wealth and well being, help in reducing stress and boredom, improve or reduce being victim of criminality and their attendance losses, tendencies and consequences. However they also bring up crimes as antisocial behaviour increases and not strongly guarded against. Particularly as there is no public order to safeguard the citizenry from non compliance to all the aforementioned rights and duties.

Specifically phone calls and text message from ICT innovation and development for the insecurity in these has caused fear, apathy, and alienation for individuals. Fortunately, the constitution and criminal justice system have provided rules to prevent crime and criminality. Generally crime in Nigeria is divided into three types: felony, misdemeanour and simple offences. These types were further classified into two; criminal and civil offences. Depending on the type of offences and age of offenders trials and adjudications are graded into age groups and judged in different courts (juveniles and adults).  For trials there are two there two reference terms used; the young offenders and the adult offenders for both criminal and civil offences. The different courts which are in practice in Nigeria are; magistrate, customary, juvenile, federal appeal and supreme courts. Civil offences are tried in customary and magistrate courts in cases involving, domestic or family conflicts and crises classified as simple offences. Criminal offences are treated by the magistrate, federal appeal, and supreme courts for crimes like felony, misdemeanour, and aggravated juvenile crimes.

Governments, groups and individuals have tried to maintain their lives by providing or acquiring a lot of facilities, amenities and utilities for satisfying or meeting up with the needs. Among these provisions are the means of survival, information and communication providing tools like GSM that could prevent unnecessary risks in travelling, social outings, and business transactions’ in civil and private lives even in life events and styles. For instance, GSM phones have been used for confirmation of journeys and calls for help in robbery attacks as reported by the media which are everyday common occurrences in Nigeria. From this point of view, communication and information are vital to safety of lives and properties when precise, timely and reliable. Recently, the Global System for Mobile telecommunication (GSM) has been adopted in many African countries. Prior to the advent of GSM some sort of telephone communication services existed in Nigeria and they were provided by Post and Telegraph (P&T), Nigerian Telecommunication Limited and so on. Many states were embarrassed with these networks, and Ondo state was not an exception since they had very poor services and poor receptions. Hence majority of Nigerians accepted the GSM on arrival in the market because of the high quality of services provided by GSM. The Nigerian elites derived pride using GSM.

 Majority of the Nigerians use the GSM as communication tool. Some use them for economic, business, political, social and educational transactions. Many adopt them to swindle, impassionate, threaten, abduct and to tell lie. Some use them to win laurels, and friendship. Some purchased theirs, while others snatched, seized, stole or dispossessed people of their rightful ownership. The Government uses it as a tool for policing and detection. In Ondo state, not every resident had access to a mobile phone due high cost of a mobile phone of the few sets available in the market. Today different products are available in the market because of the improvement in technology. Today, even lay men in the street of Ondo state have access to mobile phone which boosts their daily transaction of different kinds (Rafiu, 2009).

Comparing Ondo state with other states in Nigeria, it is very calm and peaceful. Her inhabitants are accommodating, caring and loving. Her political settings and terrains are highly organised and there is nothing like ethnic or religious crises irrespective of differences in religion. This alone stood Ondo state a better chance to attract foreign investors such as GSM service providers (NYSC, 2009).

Security as it is properly defined as the prevention of sabotage, espionage and subversion from rearing their ugly heads. One could see that these days’ of GSM phone availability, letters of threats are not as common as threats from telephone calls and text messages. These phone calls and text messages could fall into any of the categories or types of crimes or offences and security definition categories provided above. These offences can be committed by anybody in any group of age as stipulated and witnessed. All these different attitudes called for this paper’s attention to investigate security questions arising from the ownership and use of the GSM sets. Especially, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) accruing there from phones. These strong points for investigations are in relation to the GSM security implications for use by the innocents, antisocial, legal practitioners and security agents in Ondo state in short by the masses.

Ondo State is one of the educationally advantaged ones and her population learnt the right use of GSM. However a question remains, to what extent the Ondo State people have used GSM to the advantage of self and the State? If so, what does this word SWOT mean to them in terms of the GSM as owners, users, and suppliers? The investigation is on the derived social well being, welfare in terms of satisfaction and dissatisfaction in relation to the life style and life events of people through the use of the GSM phones for whatever operations in Nigeria. In particular the antisocial applications, is believed to have its serious negative implications for peoples’ lives and properties such as welfare and social wellbeing. Thus this paper examined these and the rightful ownership usage of the communication system with the view of knowing the owner-sender possession and use, GSM phone product and service provision (SWOT) and owner receiver experiences and perceived satisfaction from its applications and consumption of the goods and services there from the GSM phones.

 

Review of Literature

Telephoning culture has gone up and got a boost in the new Nigeria market. The advent of GSM indicates Nigeria and citizens arrival to civilised world of Information Communication Telecommunication (ICT) or to the society of Global Village through information gateways for awareness. The linkage is that, all ideas of GSM use were derived from ICT awareness which created attitude change with introduction of new ways of passing information through technology in the world. People no longer move in the slow, medium but fast communication tracks but cyber gate ways. So as technology changes fraud and fraudulent practices are married with it (Adetula, Adetula, & Fatusin, 2010). Usage of GSM phones is a new attitude change object with the accompanied new practices in information processing and dissemination which comes with a new human machine attitudinal idea particularly in a new technology of ICT which GSM is an outlet. Therefore any study done on GSM attitude cannot be divulged from Cyber attitude either negative or positive. 

For instance, studies have revealed that youth living in urban concentrated areas (particularly (elites) youths between fifteen and 28 years of age who have information technology awareness) commit cyber and GSM mobile phone crimes more easily and readily than any other age group leaving elsewhere (Mukoro, 1994; Aguda, 1994). They include young workers, students, businessmen and women, those in employment markets. The offences committed with these facilities or gadgets include impersonation, anonymous calls and text message threats, cyber prostitution, fraud, swindling and physical theft and stealing and snatching of phones. The adults are totally exonerated from these acts because they also join in the hustling and bustling and struggling for survival and also indirectly make amend for injustice the state has meted to them by not taking care of them properly (Vanderschveren, 1996). Walter Savage Landor in nineteenth century says, ‘there is no easy path leaving out of life, and few are the easy ones that lie within it’ (Santrock, 2005). Commission of these offences or crimes might proof to be because they are the easy ones, easy ways or paths to tread for the youths and perhaps the adults to square up their differences as these suggest to this paper. However in either case, young or old, face both criminal and civil charges for whichever of the offences committed. GSM cases lie within the realm of civil offence because most of phone cases do not involve termination of lives or inflating serious injury on victims. From these accounts we believe that both the assault victims and their assailants in GSM operations are victims of circumstances from life style, life events and inadequate welfare in everyday social living and in particular to derive social wellbeing from the strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats accruing from GSM phones.

According to adolescent researchers, (Santrock 2005), ‘modern life is stressful and leaves its psychological scars on too many adolescents, who, unable to cope effectively, never reach their human potentials’. ‘The need is not only to find better treatments for adolescents, but to find ways to encourage adolescents to adopt healthier life styles, which can prevent problems from occurring in the first place’. The survival instinct in adolescence is a crucial drive that propels youth to continue to commit crimes well after adolescent age if that habit was not managed properly at that time. This has been explained in Maslow’s (1973) hierarchy of needs. For young adults the need extends to love and belongingness. Survival reasons could at all costs and by all means force the individual to own a mobile phone in order to accelerate their antisocial or otherwise transactional approaches to improve on life styles, life events and welfare to derive satisfaction and social wellbeing. Hence the most common crimes committed by both young and adult offenders are fraud, robbery, theft, grafting, pilfering, street fighting, and raping, impersonating, car theft, phone snatching and other offences. This is different from some males who possess extra X or Y chromosome that is more deviant in antisocial behaviour and commits more grievous offences like murder, assassination, thuggery, and assault of first grade, robbery, bunkering, looting plus the aforementioned felony and misdemeanour offences narrated by Oshinowo (2005). In these latter cases the offences have become criminal because of the aggravated nature. However majority of the citizenry are law abiding.

Brantingham and Brantingham (1975) demonstrated that the rate of homicide and assault was inversely related to socio-economic status. This can be related to owners of GSM phones who use them illegitimately for business and illegally for duties and perhaps to commit assault and theft on people. Those who are using the GSM phones in performing dubious acts for selfish reasons as mentioned above for gains belonged to the social problem group such as cultists, political thugs, swindlers, blackmailers, anonymous and threat callers etc.  These people could turn to terrorists and armed robbers whom the public dreads. Brantingham and Brantingham (1975) showed that there is significant relationship between fears of insecurity, the individual psychology and his or her neighbours and immediate physical environment. Mukoro (1994) and Aguda (1994) discovered that crime had spatial distribution spreading from highest concentration area of violence, to residential affluent area, to commercial affluent areas, and gradually down to the less privilege areas. Crimes such as phone thefts are also perpetrated in densely populated areas downtown as well as isolated and dark allays in the suburb and adjoining subways to the cities and markets. The two findings above show that violence has a correlationship with socio economic status of the neighbourhood.

In support of these Yong Cho (1994) and Bowker, (1990) reiterated that the safety task to be accomplished is left with the uprightness of the security operatives and that, ‘the most popular approach to crime prevention is through criminal justice system’. ‘Governmental institutions serve as instruments of enforcement of standards for the safety and freedom of individual citizens and maintenance of order in the society’. This task must be by detecting, apprehending, prosecuting, sanctioning and controlling the conditions that violate the established rules, regulations and laws of the land (Adetula, 2005). Abodunrin (1981), Aguda (1994) and Andy (1995) suggest the removal of social injustice as contributing factors by reduction in poverty, provision of affordable housing, gainful employment, and education, provision of playing and recreational facilities as these will go a long way to alleviating some crimes. It has also been noticed that unforeseen inadequacies in insecurity might have happened from the point of manufacturing if manufacturers failed to build in security of no use in phone that does not belong to one.

With the literature review and interview with different opinion movers who were residents’ in Ondo state, one hypothesis was formulated to test whether there will be a positive significant relationship between the independent and dependent variables. This paper also did an in-depth interview to sample peoples’ opinions on GSM introduction to Nigeria as (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats that are measures of the millennium development criteria) goal to satisfy the improvement on Life styles, Life events, Social wellbeing and welfare and whether its use has any significance effect on the aforementioned in relation to security.  The findings are to enable the recommendations to the government and the services providers on GSM phone to make amend for development and security improvement.

 

Methodology

This is a survey carried out among the few people that were able to use or derive satisfaction from Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) phones among some residents of Ondo State Nigeria. The population was approximately two million people at the time of this study. Two hundred and fifty men and women were selected as participants using stratified but accidental random sampling techniques for the purpose of academic seminar. The participants were chosen on known occupational background as follows: one hundred men and one hundred women. 25 Civil servants, 25 scholars, 25 business men and women, 25 artisans, 25 traders, and 75 other professionals (politicians, law enforcement agents, judiciary and security agents). One questionnaire containing two variables and 82 items was designed and administered to participants. The independent variable was divided into three: Life style, Life events and Welfare.

The dependent variable was Strength; Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) to show participants views on the GSM perceived level of Social Wellbeing they enjoy from the use of GSM phones. The questionnaire was designed and scored in likert five point scale, 1-5, with 1 as the lowest and 5 as the highest scores. The questionnaire pre-test phase used separate sample subjects to measure the face validity using expert judgement and the agreement on items was concordat at ninety eight percent (98%) for the selection of 41 items each for both IV & DV. The validation value obtained using content validity was 0.50 and the reliability on Total Item Correlation was 0.96.  These were accepted for the tests hence the questionnaire was found to be reliable and valid. Interview approach was also used as the method of collecting data to support the questionnaire. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed for the survey each containing both variables of measures. The researchers administered these questionnaires personally on one on one basis and carried out a face to face interview with 50 different willing participants to support the data to be collected from questionnaires. The questionnaires were provided with instructions on how to complete them. However when participants were in doubt the researcher clarified the issues. The questionnaires were collected back immediately after completion. This left no room for loss or manipulations. Also a separate interview was conducted among fifty people. The administration and interview took two weeks and computation and compilation another two weeks. Hypotheses were formulated to test the relationships between the independent and the dependent variables. Statistical analysis used was presented in a descriptive report to describe the level of satisfaction enjoyed by Ondo people from the use of GSM phone in relation to their life style, life events, and welfare. This descriptive analysis approach was used in describing the perception of the participants on GSM phones SWOT have for their wellbeing.

 

Results

TABLE 1:

Correlation Table

showing relationship between independent and dependent variables

PARTICIPANT

IV

LS,LE,WL & SW

DV

SWOT

MEAN

GRP

Df

R

P<

200

M & F

1340

1860

252

2

.60

.001

Table 1 show that there is a positive significant relationship between life styles, life events, social wellbeing and welfare (independent variable) and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (dependent variable).  R= .60 at P<.001 significance level. This means that a relationship exists between the independent and dependent variables. This indicates that the higher the independent variable the higher the dependent variable therefore having implications for each other for effective satisfaction and in turn both satisfied the millennium development goals.

The result in table 1 was derived using person product moment correlation.  It shows that a positive relationship exist as depicted from the opinion responses from the 200 male and female residents of Ondo state. The probability for luck was less than one in a thousand (P<.001) hence it was due to chance.  The relationship also suggested that there were significant contributions from each of the variables to the total satisfaction of people hence the commitment to the millennium goals. This result was also found when computed with the regression analysis which shows significant contributions from each variable to the total score of millennium development and to each other (inter item correlation).

This study formulated one hypothesis to investigate the introduction and application of GSM phone in the Nigerian environment particularly among Ondo state residents.  It tested its contributions to people’s lifestyle, life event in relation to how GSM phones possession has implications to the social wellbeing and welfare of the citizenry. The hypothesis stated that; there will be a significant positive life styles, life events, social wellbeing, welfare and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the possession and use of GSM phones; the independent variable and the dependent variable respectively VIS- A- VIS millennium development. The assumption was that if a positive relationship exists at these levels the GSM introduction to the society would have contributed significantly towards meeting the millennium development objectives and goals.

Hence the findings r=.60 at P<.05 or P<.001 level of significance, a positive relationship, means that the introduction and use of the GSM mobile phones to Ondo state residents in Nigeria, have met the peoples’ needs and therefore has contributed significantly to Nigeria and Africa’s development goals. With this result and inference there from, GSM Phones possession and use and ideas and opinions by Nigerians and policy planners of its introduction has yielded an objective value in use hence it has become a measurable factor or criterion of measure of development in this millennium.  Of course the result further indicated that, with the application in Nigeria and in Ondo State in particular, GSM phone contributions to the satisfaction of the people have override their dissatisfaction contributions to them and therefore the millennium goals of Ondo State indigenes as literature was confirmed achieved and on course. ICT has therefore been substantiated as a criterion for Africa development.  Particularly in Ondo state, one of the most literate developing states in Nigeria to have embraced ICT as a way to millennium shows this factor GSM phone is a way to development in this era. This co-joined with education as criteria that the people have already has accepted to have met their state developmental goals.   

The following are the descriptive analysis of interview conducted among some residents of Ondo state who possess GSM phones and are using them every day:

 

1. Attitude to Possession, Use and Safety:

Face to face interview was conducted among separate 50 different resident respondents sample from Ondo state to support the hypothetical analysis. These fifty residents responded to the following questions posed to them on telephone usage behaviour.  The critical incidents approach was used in collecting data on both positive and negative usages.  It showed different significant levels in use and possession for one person or the other. It shows that what was good for one person may turn soar or bad for another person and vice versa.  In all every one accepted that the use of GSM phones have advantage for the majority in the following ways.

 

a. Security: On security to life and property, 40% (20) of the respondents agreed that with the possession of phone that security and protection has improved.  However for leakage of information; all the respondents (100%) i.e. fifty (50) of them believed that the more the sender of a vital information contacts or is connected many branches or sources (suppliers or receivers) for information the more the information gets leaked or manipulated.

 

b. Swindling: On swindling, 50 (100%) confirmed that the GSM phone easily allows people to tell lies in order to get something in return.  Especially extortion of money from others who care to sympathize or have empathy for those (the cheats) or perhaps with friends in 419 business or in advance free fraud practices.

 

c. Brain washing: Brain washing means talking someone out of a believed course in order to appeal for support. 30% of people believed that this happened before the advent of GSM phones.  But in recent times it is rampant because people are dealing with non-face to face talk and answer session or in direct arguments or discussions with the third party.  Hence it has forced people to accept ideas, beliefs or issues which are not physically real or observable and comprehendible or allow for objective reasoning.  In that if the victim of brain washing had been allowed to have physical contact with enemy and argue his case out on the issues of discuss the victim would not have succumbed to talking into the traps of culprit or sourcing for assistance ideas. This argument also goes for indoctrination by enemy or attacker.

 

d. Divorce: On cases of divorce, 50% of the respondents (25) agreed that GSM phone have caused divorce directly or indirectly in recent times because of double dating.  Respondents’ belief that the habit happens usually when network is bad or seen to be so as well as when not bad where the defaulter pretends service is bad to hide the secret.

 

e. Pins Hijacking and Phone Snatching: This happens where trust do not exist between friends and foes. The habit of stealing pins and snatching phones has been reported in many cases. All Fifty people or 100% interviewed added stealing of pins (credits) to carefree attitude of pin owners.  For instance, people dictating pin numbers aloud on phones to a colleague or mistakenly text the pins to wrong people. Snatching of phone also is due to carelessness of owners by showing or placed carelessly especially by ladies, as well as being the weaker sex (feminine in nature) and or being gentle and polite and not forceful. This is linked with betrayal of confidants to enemy and by telling lies deformation of character before other people for own selfish ends which has been rampant by the use of GSM phones. 

 

f. Waste of fund: 45 people or 90% of the interviewees agreed that possession and use of GSM phone amounts sometimes to principal waste of fund as it requires constant credit recharge and even though service is not available for days.  It may also lead to insecurity when such need arises and service fails where thieves raid someone and pack away ones money and valuables when calls are paramount but failed.

 

2. The Antisocial Behaviour in use

All the 50 respondents or 100% interviewees testified to the antisocial usage of phones as having high rate especially, anonymous calls and text messages. They claimed that the GSM phones have allowed unknown callers and texts senders’ to get in touch or through with them with their messages or threat calls over their phones. Respondents argued that the GSM communication channels suppose to have disallowed if there was built in security device to check these type usages. This can be the current practices which do not reveal the identity of callers or threat messengers or evil perpetrators. The victims see this present practice as protecting criminals instead of rightful holders. The same was argued for those who stole ones phones that are protected by service providers operations.

 

3.   Threats to life

 

a. Threats: Threats have been witnessed mostly from texting or verbal calls from detractors.  100% or the whole of the fifty participants accepted that owners happen to go through harrowing burdens of threats to their lives. Sometimes about something one knows nothing about or knows little about.  Most often these impostors’ actions lead to blackmails.

 

b. Prostitution: 30 percent of the interviewees accepted that GSM phones allow people to practice prostitution.  They indicate that women in particular find GSM as advantage channel to sell their body potentials for money or something in exchange.  They use GSM phone as a secret convenient channel for discussing surreptitiously adulterous approaches, fornication advances to old or new lovers’ for renewed sexual relationships. This is for sexual gratifications amounting to prostitution.

c. Effects on feelings: All the interviewees (50) believe that people have emotional attachment and affection for phones and their uses.  There is a tendency of addiction.  All the participants have a sense of safety with these phones, despite threats and weaknesses.  This is terms of financial, economic, political, social and psychological on feelings from person to person via interactions with business associates, families and partners in progress, invisible colleague, and the possibility winning friend’s affiliation through the phone set.  These were attested to in times of disaster and emergencies when altruistic behaviors are manifested and when the purchase of pins for GSM phones emergency is inevitable or become handy and useful.  Many participants believe that mobile communication phones enhances ones economic advantage or helps in business growth or when business is failing surviving information is important because of timeliness in communication to consolidate or get advice and support from colleagues.

60% of the respondents belief that the use of GSM phones could lead to computer literacy since most people who use phones are eventually those who browse, they usually seen browsing on personal computers and cyber cafés. All 50 interviewees’ believe that they have feelings of being connected to their immediate environment outside world in fact they see it as facilitating the Global village objectives for development. They believe it leads to sense of belongingness and a fulfilled life style.

All the interviewees (50) or 100% attested to it that the reason for untrustworthiness is based on the idea that one should not be carried away by trusting people by merely seeing them or receiving a lot of calls, text messages one has not witnessed before with other users of phones. They might be swindlers.

 

Discussion and Conclusion

It is agreed that the criminal justice system and security operatives frown at GSM phones anti social adoptions and adaptations, but what of those problems that are vivid but having underlying insecurity which is salient to the individuals, in that they are so personal that and cannot be voiced out, instead they are down played for security reasons by victims. Victims are usually suffering by coping in silence while the assailants’ behaviours continue to thrive in their unpalatable forms. How do we manage these? It has been discovered that victims’ manifested uncared attitudes because of the fear of the assailant, apathy to law enforcement agencies, indifference to the plight of victims by law enforcement agents, careless attitude of criminal justice agents to justice and tried cases, no fair trial, and fear of aggravation of insecurity if assailant is let off the hook or the castigation by others for reporting cases to police (Bureau of justice statistics, 1994; Kolo, 2002; Yesufu, 2002).

As a result, people are living in fear and are often left to carry the burden of the thought of the offence and its syndrome all about as claimed the Nigerian Tribune 1990. This is detrimental to psychological, social and physical health and wellbeing of the individual in the society. On the other hand, a lot of gains have accrued to the crime perpetrators by being antisocial they satisfied with gains. As all these behaviours are increasingly spreading and appalling to the owners and users of GSM phones the society is left to what is the control required for curbing them from becoming HIV positive to human prosperity and danger to Nigerians in this millennium. Again the offences committed with the application or operational use of GSM cell phones by these categories and classes of people described above and crimes perpetrated by them as listed above have consequential implications for social wellbeing and are becoming unbearable to some people yet many are deriving joy. Does it mean Nigerians still have advantage or added value in the use of GSM phone cells?  What are their development implications to the individuals and society at large in this millennium? What are the opinions of the respondents to the latter?

People agreed that the GSM introduction in Nigeria has alleviated a lot sufferings from day to day living, life styles and life event. They also agreed that the level of satisfaction derived could be objectively measured from the social wellbeing point of view and from the welfare derived from GSM applications. They believed that in all its ramifications, GSM phones have made positive impacts on them, than the negative and the strength and opportunities values are more than their threats and weakness. Hence they confirmed as the results obtained proved that, one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria has been set and ongoing.

Since good communication is one of the development criteria, experts have agreed that Africa can develop if they develop information communication Technology by providing telephone facilities for global communication and awareness. This makes knowledge available for decision making.  One would belief that this factor has set the pace for every Ondo state people to grow.        

GSM is still a new phenomenon in Ondo State and Nigeria. Nigerians are divided into three groups educationally and these coincide with the use of the GSM. The Literates, Semi-literates and Illiterates, all the three groups subscribe to one type of the GSM technology phones or the other and actually are making use of at least a mobile phone. This in turn exposes them to the SWOT of the GSM; that is the dangers, benefits and attitudinal pranks opened to ownership user, ownership currier and ownership supplier of which the recommendations about to be made below are guidance for safe custody of the one in ones possession are relevant.

Researches on ICT are ongoing and breakthroughs have been made. In Nigeria we have just embraced the ICT as a development criterion. Therefore the onus is on Nigerian governments or who ever is on seat of government to put more effort at improving communication and information dissemination a priority. This is for effective and timely information to be received particularly when emergency calls for it. While more Nigerians embrace the use of GSM phones, the government and service providers should find a way of making communication and information dissemination cheap and available to people all the time.

As a follow up to the preceding recommendations, security and protection in physical and conceptual forms should be provided for phone users and the phone itself. This is to deprive attackers’ gaining free and easy accesses to peoples’ information, information data base of the phone or passing detrimental comments on people through their lines. Owners should endeavour to guide themselves against hackers or making themselves curriers of bad news. This will not only bring sanity but also will prevent bad blood and divorces through quarrels by couples or lovers when they read text messages secretly. Before the advent of GSM phones government has made available cheap and accessible phone booths. These should be revisited to make provisions for people who have no money to make calls in emergencies. Researchers are hereby encouraged to do follow up studies in order to suggest ways of achieving these recommendations.

 

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[1] Department of Pscyhology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. E-mail: medolinecomputers@yahoo.com

[2] Department of Pscyhology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. E-mail: ade_adetula@yahoo.com

[3] Department of Geography and Planning sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. E-mail: medolinecomputers@yahoo.com